{Print edition page number: 177}

Rivall Friendship


The Fifth Sixth Book

In the meane time (said Arthenia) Mazara was reduced to great extreamities by Faragenes, who had so straightly besieg’d it, as they had not the least hopes left them of a reliefe; especially since the King was under a restraint which being once assur’d of, they thought it would be but a fruitless service to him longer to continue the siege: whereupon, after severall debates, and consultations they surrendred the Citty, together with the Prince Issomantes the Kings second son, who was immediatly sent to Palermo to be kept with the Prince Hiperion his Brother, and two of his sisters who were detained there as Prisoners.[1] But t’was not long that these young Princes continu’d together, for Issomantes in a short time after made an escape in the habit of a Lady, which thorough his youth, and beauty he so well personated as he easily deluded the eyes of his Keepers. Macaria likewise, to whose care the Princess Herenia had by the Queen her Mother been intrusted at her departure ^out^ of Sicilie, conveide her safely into Naples; though not without much hazard of being surpriz’d ere she could effect her Desig^ne^. These two being thus got free from their confinement, there remain’d onely Hyperion, and the Princess Eluzeria in the enemies power, who poor Princess never knew an end of Captivity till Death releast her.[2]

It might with reason have been believ’d (continu’d Arthenia) that the confidence which the King repos’d in these perfidious Corsicans, ^and^ his so gracious condescention to all that they requir’d, would so strongly have engag’d them not onely to protect him as they had promis’d; but also to endeavour to reinstate him in the possession of his just, and undoubted right, which those usurping Traitors had most injuriously despoil’d him of: but instead of that, it gave them opportunity to act the most horrid piece of treachery that ever the most Infernall Spirits could suggest. Which was, not onely to betray him into the hands of his most mortall and implacable enemies, but to make Merchandize{178} of him, as if he had been a slave, selling him to them at the price of 30000 Talents:[3] This in my opinion (pursu’d Arthenia) was so horrible a thing, as I should tremble to relate it, did not that which succeeded (whereof my owne Countrymen are guilty) stricke such a horrour into me so oft as I reflect on it, that I have scarce my reason free, to pass so severe a Censure on these Miscreants as they deserve.

Why (interrupted the Queen) can there be a Crime more black then that you mention’d; sure if there be, Divells, not men must act it.

Ah, Madam (repli’d Arthenia with a sigh) of such a nature is the crime Sicilie stands branded with, and will do, to all posterity, that Corsica’s if compar’d with it seemes [fol. 72 r ] but a Veniall sin.

But to proceed (continu’d she) that summe I spake of, was no sooner tendred, but Clearchus was deliver’d to those, sent by the Senate to receive him; and by them carri’d to one of his own Castles, being one of the most stately buildings Sicilie can shew; nere to the Plain of Catana was it situated, which perhaps enduced them rather to make choice of that to keep him in then any other, to the end he might be perpetually tortured with the view of that unhappy place where he receiv’d his finall overthrow.[4] Here was he kept under so close a restraint, as none, no not so much as any of his owne Meniall servants were allow’d access to him. In the interim hapned a difference between a Partie in the Senate, and some of the chiefe Commanders in the Armie; whereupon one of their Officers was dispatch’t with Commission to ceaze the King, and bring him safe to the Campe, which was accordingly done. He was at first treated with great demonstrations of reverence and affection; and leave given to his servants to repaire to him again, and to any of the Royall Partie that desir’d it, permission to see him: but so had he been deluded by that reception he had in Corsica, that he found but little reason to build his hopes on a little outward semblance of respect, since he had onely chang’d his Guards, and Prison, not his Captive state: but this little civility which he receiv’d much enlarg’d the breach which was between the Senate and the Armie: the Inhabitants of Palermo too began to be somewhat sensible of what they had done, in being Instrumentall in the chaceing away their King from them by their rude deportment; which to repaire, they joyn’d with those in the Senate who desir’d his restoration.

Whereupon, those Senatours who had no mind to see him returne, and had the most highly upheld the war against him, quited their Fellows, and betook themselves to the other part of the Armie (over which Ormisdas had the more immediate command) who being encourag’d by their repaire to them, advanced without delay to Palermo with an intention to restore them to their former power: upon the newes of whose approach, the Inhabitants (who before spake high, and{179} had begun to raise an Armie to joyne with those who seemed to favour the King) were so scared, as they no sooner saw an Armie within ^at^ their Walls, but they instantly su’d for Peace, opening their Gates to receive them; who instantly went and placed those Senatours that they had taken into their protection, in their severall seates; suppressing those of the opposite partie: after which they pass’d thorow the Citty in a tryumphant manner, with displai’d Ensignes, and diverse Warlike Instruments resounding, so as ^they^ even made the streets to echo with the sound. Presently after this was the King hurried up and downe from one Place to another; till at last he was brought to one of his owne Palaces, some ten miles distant from Palermo; where long he had not been, ere he was terrifi’d with the apprehension of some dangerous contrivance, which (as he was credibly enform’d) was in aggitation against him his life, by some of the Armie, though he could not make a discovery who they were.[5]

Where upon, he secretly got thence, with onely three of his Attendants; and believing the Governour of Lipara (one of the adiacent Islands) to be devoted to him, he unhappily put himself into his power; but he deceiving that trust he had repos’d in him, no less then the Corsicans had done before, made him close Prisoner in the strongest Castle in the Island. Assoon as it was known w[h]ere he was, the Senate sent some Propositions to him much of [fol. 72 v ] the same nature the others were before; to which he return’d like Answere as he had formerly done; which so incenst them to see they could not tryumph ore his mind, by inthralling that, as they had done his body, by compelling him to yeeld to their unjust demands, as they instantly decreed amongst themselves, never more to make any Address to him as their King by way of request, sute, or Petition; but to take upon them the Goverment of the Kingdome. To this procedure they were encourag’d by a Manifest publish’d by the Armie, wherein they engag’d themselves to stand firmly to them in the maintainance of that Decree.

And now it was that his subjects both of Sicilia, and Corsica who had so long united their forces against him, began (when it was too late) to look on his deplorable condition with a very sensible condition concerne; and having invain try’d to obtain his freedome by way of Petition, they resolv’d to try what they could do by force. The Province of Nota (which had ever stood well affected to his service) first express’d their readiness to appeare for him, which they did under the conduct of Gerandus:[6] after which ^Leonitus^ Pollidor, and Policilus,[7] who had before serv’d under the Senate, revolted; ceazing on some important{180} Townes, and Castles in the Æolian Isles, and declar’d against them. And lastly Merobates Prince of Harvilio,[8] having rais’d a strong Armie of Corsicans came into Sicilie with pretences of restoring the King to his Crowne and liberty. But as the Ilustrious Clearchus, (whose Princely mind was far above the reach of Fortunes power) arm’d himselfe with a heroick resolution against all future events, in the midest of these high hopes, and expectations, that what ever happed he might be prepar’d for its reception; so neither were the Senate wanting in their diligent endeavours, to destroy those hopes, and render those expectations ineffectuall: for the danger alarming ^them^ so on all sides, Ormisdas is dispatch’d with some part of the Armie into the revolted Islands, where he but too soon reduced all again under obedience to the Senate. Those three Commanders I lately mention’d, submitted to the mercy of him who was compos’d of nought but cruelty; for no sooner had they yeelded, but he caus’d them all to be put to death.[9] Having in this manner subdued all his opposers in those parts, he returnes; and encounters the Corsican Armie, who were marching vigorously on their way, and were advanced as far as the Province of Mona, but were there stop’d by Ormisdas his encounter; who put them to the route, killing, and taking even almost their whole Armie, together with their Generall Merobates who was sent Prisoner to Palermo: after which, Ormisdas visits Corsica, where he totally subdues all those, that in the least could be suspected of Fidelity to their Prince; and so impoverishes them, as he leaves them in no capacity of puting him to the trouble of a returne to quell them a second time.[10]

But whilst he was busie there, Faragenes was no less employ’d in the Province of Nota against Gerandus, who finding himselfe too weak to encounter him in the Field, retir’d into Agrigentum to stay the arrivall of some expected supplies; but being alarum’d by Faragenes’s approach, and knowing that Citty too feebly fortified to maintain a siege quited it; but with what design I know not; but whatever it was he had not time (it seemes) to pursue it, being surpriz’d by the enemy, who stop’d their passage at Enna, forceing ^them^ to take sanctuary in that Towne, where, had their strength [fol. 73 r ] been but answerable to their Courages, they had doubtless held them play till such time as their expected supplies had come to their assistance: but notwithstanding their inconsiderable number, they kept the Towne the day following, and the ensuing night, ere they{181} could be driven thence. Just as Gerandus enter’d Enna, he was saluted by a Cavalliere galantly mounted, and Arm’d Capapied, though he had nothing remarkable in his Armes; (but seem’d as if he had a designe to make himself known rather by his valour, then by any Device he had about him) save, on his head instead of a Casque he wore a Helmet shaded with a stately Plume of Carnation, and White Feathers curiously intermix’t; his Face being almost bare disclos’d a martiall Countenance, yet spake his age not above 18. This young Gallant being come up to the Generall, suddely stop’d his horse, and accosted him with a profound reverence, even to his sadle Bow.

Sir (said he to him with a becoming garbe ^grace^)[11] I have hitherto deem’d it my highest misfortune that my youth has till now render’d me uncapable of serving my Prince any otherwise then by fruitless wishes; and that whilst so many brave men ventur’d their lives in so just a cause, I onely should set secure, studying the Theory of War, the practick part whereof I suppos’d I could of none learn better then of so experienced a Commander as yourselfe; which has enduced me to desire admittance amongst these Gentlemen who have the honour to follow you; and though the addition of one single man can bring but small assistance to your Troops, yet if my Courage deceive me not, I hope sir to performe something considerable enough for so young a soldier.

This confidence in a person of so few yeares, so well pleas’d Gerandus, that he not onely admitted him, but gave him the honour to command a Troop whose Captain died that very morning; telling him withall, that if all his other souldiers were inspir’d but with spirits like his, he should not need to give the enemy the trouble of a further pursute. In this manner it was that the young Loreto (for it was he indeed as I afterwards learn’d) first signaliz’d himselfe: but although he made then but a short essay in armes, yet (notwithstanding the prejudice I have against him, I must do him the justice to afirme) he gain’d so noble a repute, as Sicilie cannot without Ingratitude bury in Oblivion the memory of those valiant acts which in that little space he perform’d: for twice by his sole valour he made the enemy retire; and afterwards for the space of 12 houres (with onely a handfull of men) defended a Bridge which gave enterance to the Towne. And when the souldiers under his command wanted Bullets, he instantly caus’d all the mony he had brought with him for his owne perticuler expences, to be cut in pieces, and distributed amongst them to shoot against the enemy. This action of his was esteem’d so highly generous, as all persons that heard it, proclaim’d it with infinite applause: but being at length o’repower’d rather by multituds then Valour, he lost his liberty; and with it, his Party their hopes of keeping Enna any longer, which mov’d them to abandon it, though in great disorder; but the darkness of the night favouring them, with much confusion, though no great loss, they got over a certaine River which runs thorough that part of the Country, and shut up{182} themselves in that Citty which gives name to the Province: where after a long siege, and enduring the highest extreamities,[12] even almost to famishment, they yeelded [fol. 73 v ] upon these Conditions; that the Citty should be exempt from Pillage, the Officers and Souldiers to submit to the mercy of the Conquerour. But no sooner was the City surrendred, but two of the chiefe Commanders were instantly put to death; and the galant Cratander[13] reserv’d for a Trophie to follow the Conquerours Chariot to Palermo, where soon after he was put to death; which he entertain’d with as undaunted a Brow, as Merobates (who was put to death with him) receiv’d his with apprehensions unbecoming a Generous Spirit.

But not withstanding these prosperous successes, the Senate perceiving all Sicilie in generall infinitly desirous that they should treat again with Clearchus concerning a peace at length consented, repealing their late Decree; and deputed severall to be sent from them to treat with him. But these men (being before instructed by those who had not onely contriv’d, but absolutely resolv’d the destruction of their King) drew out each perticuler to such a length, and stood so long demurring on things of no consequence, as they gave the Armie opportunity to publish a Declaration wherein they most injuriously affirm’d Clearchus to be guilty of all the blood that had been spilt in this unnaturall War; adding withall, that he ought to be depos’d, as being unfit to rule, and that it was necessary for the security, and wellfare of the Nation that Justice should be inflicted on him: to which intent, he was on a sudden ceaz’d on, and brought Prisoner to his own Palace at Palermo; after which, all those that seem’d satisfi’d with his gracious condescentions were expell’d the Senatehouse by their Fellows who held intelligence with the Armie:[14] and then assuming an unlimmitted power they summon’d their King to appeare before them, in such an unheard of manner as no Historie ere records the like; nor was it known before, that subjects durst presume to set as Judges to determine the life or Death of their lawfull Soveraign.

But the day for his appearance being come, he was brought from his Palace to the Court of Judicature; where Brataldo[15] (who was constituted to be his Judge) and the rest of his Assistants sate expecting his coming, which he could no way avoid being ^under^ restraint; but t’was not the power they had unjustly assum’d could in the least make him owne ^their^ authority, or betray Sicilies liberty (to an unlawfull power) which he resolv’d (what’ere he suffer’d) should never be in the least infring’d by his acknowledging their usurp’d Authority a Lawfull{183} one. But notwithstanding these audacious Villains proceed in what they had determin’d, unjustly charging him with all the miseries that Sicilia had suffer’d for so many yeares; though Heaven knowes, none but themselves were the occation of them; nor none so innocent of them as he who had from time to time try’d sought, and most earnestly endevour’d by all imaginable meanes, not onely to prevent, but likewise to put an end to his People’s sufferings. The best titles these Monsters of impudence in their Charge could conferre upon their Soveraign were no better then Tyrant, Traitor, Murtherer, and the common Enemy of his Country: which when the good Clearchus heard, he made no reply, onely smil’d, as scorning to vindicate himselfe from such foule aspersions as all the World knew to be notoriously false. But when they saw that all they could do, could not constrain him to betray his owne Innocence by submitting to their accusation, or the Lawes of the Land, and his subjects [fol. 74 r ] liberties by acknowledging them a lawfull Power, and that he resolv’d rather to dye his Peoples Martyre, then live their Injurer, they presum’d (after he had receiv’d from them many reproachfull speeches, and much uncivill, and unexpressable rude, and saucie language) to doome him to Death; sentenceing him to loose his head within the Gates of his owne Palace within three dayes.

The fatall day being come, wherein was to be acted the blackest, and most horrid Tragidie that ever was presented to the Worlds view; Clearchus spent the morning of it in pious Devotions: which were no sooner ended, but he was hurried to the Place of Execution. The Scaffold destin’d for that purpose was hung round with black, to which being brought he asscended it with a Countenance wherin not the least signe of a troublesome concerne was to be seen; but rather a serene calmnes, intimating his inward quiet. Multitudes of People were gather’d together from all parts of the Citty to behold this dismall spectacle; where though thousands lamented, yet none had the courage to rescue him from those Assasines who were going to destroy him; which if any had been so hardy to attempt, possibly they had found better success then in probability they could have expected: but certainly they were all infatuated, or rendred insensible of what they saw; or they could ne’re have stood with Teares bewailing, what with their bloods they ought to have hinder’d, or not have liv’d to have been spectators of. Something he said to the People in vindication of his Innocence, lest (as he said) they might believe, in seeing him so calmly submit to the Punishment, that he likewise acknowledg’d the guilt of those Crimes wherwith he had been falsly charg’d; declaring withall his unbounded Charity which oblig’d him freely to forgive all those who had been either the Contrivers, or Authers of his death: much more t’was thought he intended to have said; but finding the People (to whom he addresst his speach) kept at so great a distance by those Guards which surrounded the Scaffold that he supos’d they could heare but little what he said, he desisted from his intended Discourse, and prepared for the reception of the fatall blow; which after some short, though fervent Prayers he resign’d himselfe to that eternall Being who gave him his; and with a greater Patience then ever{184} Mortall was before endued with, quietly submitted his Illustrious Head to the cruell hand of a vild^e^[16] Executioner, who with one blow sever’d it from his body: which being done, he held it up, exposing it to the view of all such as had the heart to behold so dismall, and afflicting an Object.

This, this Madam (continu’d Arthenia with a sigh) was that ha^i^nous Crime without example wherewith my Country will stand branded with the blackest Infamie to all succeeding Ages, and has justly rendred the very name of a Sicilian hatefull to all other Nations.

I am most strangly amaz’d (repli’d the Queen) at what you tell me, that I should scarce take this story for any other then a Romantick Fiction, did you not assure me tis a reall truth.

Tis but too known a[s] one (answered Arthenia) Gentillus here, can I doubt not affirme it as well as I: being in Sicilie not many yeares after this Tragidie was acted; where t’was impossible to be and not heare this, which none there were ignorant of.

I was there I confess Madam (said he addressing his speech to the Queen) and know all that Arthenia has recounted concerning the Unfortunate Clearchus’s disastrous Fate to be certainly true having heard it before from the mouthes of those who had been Eye witnesses thereof: but your Majesty has reason not [fol. 74 v ] lightly to credit so great an improbability as that there should spring from humane race such inhumane Monsters as nothing could saciate but their Sovereign’s blood. It has been known sometimes I must confess, that Kings have been prively made away by Poison, or some other treacherous contrivance of some bold Traitor; but that ever Prince should by his owne subiects be arrained at a Tribunall as a Malefactour, and under a forme of Law, and Justice be doom’d to dye, and be publickly put to death on an Infamous scaffold before the face of all the World, is that which ne’re was heard, nor seen before; and which when I first heard, fill’d me with no less horror and astonishment then that wherewith your Majesty is ceaz’d.

Well (answered Ermillia) I shall henceforth deeme nothing strang since this is true. But good Arthenia tell me (pursued she) did not Heaven inflict on those bloody Regicides, punishments as unheard of as their Crimes.

Yes Madam (she replied) tis very sure it did on some of the chiefest, and most notorious of them; even then when in appearance they were exempt from all but those which Divine Justice reserves for guilty soules hereafter; nor did the rest go free, though Vengeance was awhile delay’d in their exemplary punishments, it [h]it the heavier at length for that it was so slow: but I must humbly beg you will be pleas’d Madam to give me leave to relate things in order as they hapned, and your Majesty shall fully know the Fate that befell those cruell Murtherers of the Illustrious Clearchus; for though (I must needs say) much of that I{185} have already told, nor of what I intend further to declare, has no connexion with my owne perticuler concernes, yet deeming it worthier your attention, then those more triviall Events that relate onely to the Unhappy Arthenia, it has enduced me to insist more perticulerly on the great Concernments of my King, and Country then otherwise I should have done, had I made this relation to any other then ^the^ Queen of Delphos.

All Princes in general (said Ermillia) being concern’d to look with horror, and detestation on your Countryes offence, are no less oblig’d to commiserate with the highest pitty, and most sensible Compassion the unmatchable sufferings of your King; for which I declare my resentments [sentiments] are such, that if I had a perticuler interest in them, they could not be more afflicting: but yet of such a nature is this trouble, that you have more oblig’d me by giving, then you would, had you exempted me from it, by concealing from my knowledge things of such importance: therefore go on Arthenia, and let me know as well all as Sicilias adventures, as your owne mishaps.

She having signfi’d to the Queen her readiness to pay obedience to her commands, proceeded in these words. No sooner was this execrable Fact committed, but it was cellebrated with shoutes of Joy, and with the sound of Drumes, and Trumpets, which loudly proclaim’d the satisfaction they took in what they had done; glorying in nothing more then that, which was Sicilies highest shame, and stain’d themselves in perticuler with eternall Infamie.

Th[e] insolent Ormisdas being present at this Execution, no sooner saw Clearchus’s Royall head divided from his breathless body, but beholding him with a disdainfull Look (turning to some that were next him) See (said he) where lies the disturber of Sicilies peace.

His Corpes being carried to an appartment in the Palace where he usually [fol.75 r ] lodg’d, was for some dayes there expos’d to the view of such as desired to behold it: after which he was convei’d to a little Towne, distant from Palermo about 20 miles; his body being attended onely by some few of the most Illustrious persons in the Kingdome, who had courage enough to owne publickly that untainted Fidelity, and unshaken Friendship they had cordially pai’d him to the last minute of his life; nor would they yet abandon him till they had seen him interred in the Monument of Herelius, one of the precedent Kings of Sicilie, for there it was he was intomb’d;[17] but without the least solemnities of state due to so great a Monarch were his Obsequies perform’d, nay even those Funurall Rites which the meanest persons were allow’d were to him deni’d. Report soon flew to Naples with the dolefull tydings of his untimely death to his disconsolate Queen, whose griefs, and woefull laments nothing could equall, but Prince Claromenes’s and the rest of those Illustrious Orphans; which were such, as being unable to describe, I must pass them by in silence, knowing no words nor expressions sad{186} enough to cloth their sorrows in: nor was the hopes of possessing three potent Kingdoms, with the dazling splendor of a triple Crowne (whereof Claromenes was the undoubted Heire) capable of dispelling those dark Melancholy Vapours, which for divers yeares clouded his Princely Brow.

In the meane time the ambitious Ormisdas having goten the sole command into his owne hands by Feragenes his declining his Commission which had been joyntly devided betwixt them: for he, seeing things carried to that height, and begining to perceive the Design they had upon the Kings life, when it was too late to prevent it; or at least wanting courage enough to hinder the execution of those crimes which he could not approve, though he had been too great an Accessary in by that assistance he gave those Traitours, laid downe his Commission (which was thereupon intierly conferr’d on Ormisdas) and retir’d to his owne house; where he has ever since lead a private life.[18] Ormisdas (I say) having by this meanes got what he long time had aim’d at, stay’d not there, but quickly arriv’d to the supreame power in the Kingdome, though he alwayes declin’d the title of a King, having before endevour’d to render it so hatefull, as he durst not in Pollicie assume the name, though he presum’d to exercise the Authority; which he did, with so unlimmitted, and uncontroul’d a power, as that if ever Sicilie groan’d under the heavie pressure of a Tyrants armes, now was the time. But as he obtain’d the goverment of the Kingdome by the Foxes subtilty, so he resolv’d to keep it by the Lyons force; making all things bow to his interest; compelling even those very senatours who had been hitherto his Masters, now to become his servants; for since he had the sword in his hand, by having the whole Armie at his devotion, he knew well enough none durst be so hardy as to oppose him. Most of the loyall-hearted Nobility, whether it were that their generous spirits could not descend to stoop so low as to submit to a Usurper, or that they abhorr’d a Land stain’d with Crimes so monsterous as Sicilie was, I cannot say; but so it was, that soon after their King was murder’d, they abandon’d their native Country, and the ancient seates of their Progenitours, and repair’d to him whom they now look’d on, and respected as their Lawfull sovereign, though unjustly kept from ascending his Royal Throne by an aspiring Rebell; chusing rather to follow the [fol. 75 v ] Fortunes of their exil’d Prince though exposed to the highest necessities, then without him to enjoy all the delights, and plenties that Sicilie could afford.

It was not long ere the Sicilians found by sad experience, the bad exchanges they had made, in changing a Golden Scepter for an Iron one, and a just, and gracious King for an unjust and cruel Tyrant, who knew no Law but his owne Will; imposing on those who ought to have been his Fellow subjects, not his Slaves, what Taxes he thought fit, to maintain his assumed Dignity, and secure him in that Place of honour to which he had waded thorow a River of his Soveraigns{187} blood. Two yeares were not expir’d since the never enough to be lamented Murther of the best of Kings ere the Corsicans consider’d how much they had been accessary to that most execrable deed, both by their rebellion and their treachery; and finding how little advantagious those Crimes had been to them, began to bethink themselves by what way they might in part repaire those past miscarriages which they could never sufficently deplore. To which end they concluded to envite to them their injured Prince, and place him not onely on the Throne of Corsica, but of Sicilie too, by aiding, and assisting him to regain that which his Royall Father lost. This being once resolv’d, some of the chiefest in that Kingdome were dispatch’d to Naples to make their applications to him, and to give him all the assurance that might be of their Countries Fidelitie, and an honourable reception; with promises of all dutyfull alleageance, and loyalty for the future; upon which, he returnes with them to Corsica, where he was with all the state, and grandure that Kingdome was capable of exhibiting solemnly Crown’d King of Corsica in Bastia their chiefe Citty, which had for many Ages been the Royal seate of their precedent Kings.[19]

These transactions in Corsica Ormisdas having certain intelligence of, prepared for a speedy Invasion that he might soon drive thence again their King, well knowing that if he suffer’d him to establish himselfe firmly on that Throne, it would be impossible long to detain from him that in Sicilie, to which he had no less a right then to the other; being by just succession the undoubted Heire of both. To this intent, he advances with a formidable Armie towards Corsica, before such time as King Claromenes could make any considerable provision to oppose him; whereupon he thought it best (knowing the weakness of Corsica; and not being so well assur’d of his subiects fidelities too much to relie on them; since they had been so treacherous to the King his Father) with those Forces he had, and as many as he could suddenly leavy to march into Sicilie to hinder Ormisdas from advanceing further towards Corsica: to which he was encourag’d by the daily repaires of Sicilians to him; and an assurance he receiv’d from some of his approved Friends, that he should no sooner appear in Sicilie, but many thousands would declare for him: which intelligence he found the truth of in his March, by those additions he made to his Armie in all places as he pass’d along: but in all other parts they were so aw’d by Ormisdas tyranie that they durst not stir to the assistance of their lawfull Prince.[20] But notwithstanding the Loyal Stertorius was doing his utmost in a remote part of the Kingdome to raise [fol. 76 r ] some forces to joyne with Corsicas King; and had in a short time got together a considerable{188} company; but being desirous to increase his Troops to as great a number as possible he could, it was so long ere he arriv’d that Claromenes was met by Ormisdas and constrain’d to come to a Battell: but the King of Corsica knowing his Fate depended on this first encounter, since his Armie was much inferior to the others both in number and experience, he would willingly have declin’d fighting till such time as he might be in a better capacity to encounter his Enemy by the assistance he expected from Stertorious.[21] But Ormisdas being too well vers’d in War to loose such an advantage, compell’d him to accept the Battell; wherein though he did such things as future times will scarcely credit, even to the admiration both of his Friends and Enemies, yet (this being not the time wherein Heaven had decreed his restoration, nor Sicilie sufficiently punish’d for its crimes) he so totally lost the Victory, that all his Forces were either kill’d, or taken Prisoners, and afterwards sold most barbarously for slaves into other Countries: himself (poor Unfortunate Prince) constrain’d to seek his safty in his Flight.[22]

This misfortune was by all that wish’t him well, and had importun’d Heaven for his good success, resented [felt] with an unexpressable sorrow, to see those hopes, which had so pleasingly flatter’d them into a beliefe that they should speedily see Vengeance excuted on the malicious Murtherers of their late Gracious Soveraign utterly frustrated: insomuch, as one whose heart had been cordially affected to his King (though uncapable of expressing it) when he beheld the wretched Prisoners led fetter’d by his Dore, conceiv’d so great a griefe thereat, as in few days hurried him to his Grave. But though Ormisdas won the Battell, yet thought he the Victory imperfect since Claromenes was neither dead, nor a Prisoner but had made his escape; whereby he might one day be in a condition to repaire his loss. Manifests therefore were emmediatly dispers’d into all parts of the Land for his apprehension, and great rewards promis’d to any person that could either take, or bring certaine intelligence to Ormisdas of his being conceal’d in any Place: but notwithstanding the diligent care of those who went in quest of him, yet Heaven preserv’d him in a most perticuler manner from all his enemies pursutes: for though he had been absent from Sicilie diverse yeares, and that the weight of those uncomman griefes which has so long oppress’d his great Soule had wrought such a change in his Countenance as it would have bin no easie thing to know him, (except such as had been the faithfull Companions of his Exile) yet if Divine Providence had not in almost a miraculous manner provided{189} for his saftie, it had certainly been impossible for him not to have been discover’d by one meanes or another; being a Person so remarkable as he is, both for his stature which he exceeds most men in, and his delicate shape which none can equall: but if neither his height, nor proportion could have rendred him suspected, his Face was yet more remarkable, having indelibly imprinted on it such Charactars of Royalty, and an Aire onely peculier to himselfe so Illustrious and Great, as was sufficent at once to inspire into the hearts of all beholders both love, and veneration; nay even then [fol. 76 v ] when he was so disguised, as his owne eyes could scarce believe it was himselfe they saw, there yet appear’d such Rayes of Majesty in him, as none that had exactly view’d him but would have concluded, if he were not a King, he was undoubtedly born to be one. Being such, and much more admirable then my imperfect description is able to represent him; you may believe Madam (pursu’d Arthenia ) he ran no ordinary danger of a discovery, when he was constrain’d together with Philarchus[23] (one of the most faithfull of his Attendants, whose resolutions were firmly fixt never to abandon him) to seek his security in the midst of a Forrest neer adjoyning to the Field of Battell; where on a Tree whose Branches were interwoven very thick, he was forced to conceal himself a whole day, and a Night without either sleep, or sustenance; being perpetually alarm’d with feares of a surprizall in his Silvan retreat by some of those souldiers who continually coasted the Forrest in search of him; and often in their traverses pass’d under that very Tree on which he was. But early the next morning, Philarchus espi’d thorough the Branches two men whose habits spake them to be Forresters, who seem’d very earnest in discourse, the subiect whereof (when they came so neer as to be heard) seem’d to him (who hearkned intentively to them) to concern the Kings misfortune, which with many sensible expressions they deplored: which made him fancy; there might probably be found more honesty in such as those, who convers’d with few but the Innocent Inhabitants of the Woods, then amongst others, whom a more publick conversation might infect with Covetousness, or Ambition.

Which thought no sooner came into his mind, but he acquainted Claromenes with it telling him, that since those men had testifi’d such a Concerne for his ill Fate, possibly they might by their assistance find some way to escape: however Sir (continu’d he) your Majesty shall be sure to run no greater hazard then now you do, if you will grant me a permission to shew my selfe to them. The King knowing well both the fidelity, and discretion of Philarchus, opposed not his{190} Proposall, but readily condescended to it; whereupon he instantly left the Tree, and having mark’d what path they had taken, he posted after them with such speed, as in a short space he overtook them, who were walking on but at a softly rate, traversing the Forrest as it was their daily custome, to view the Deere, and to prevent them from stragling beyond their bounds; so that having overtaken them, he accosted them in this manner.

Friends (said he) that which it was my Fortune even now to heare you say, has created in me a beliefe, that since you have express’d a trouble, for the late disaster of him, whom you have been so just as to stile your King, that you will be no enemies to those who are his Friends: which has encourag’d me to hope, by your assistance to find security both for my selfe and another Gentleman of my acquaintance (who is in no less distress and danger then my selfe) which I can no longer doubt of, if you, can but procure us some such habits as men of your degree and quality usually weare; for which we will willingly exchang our owne, which may be of much more advantage to you, but yet, much less then the [fol. 77 r ] reward you shall receive, if you will but furnish us with what I now request.

These honest men being more joyfull that they had found an opportunity to serve any that profest love for King Claromenes, then to inrich themselves by any recompence they could expect; told Philarchus, he should find them most ready to serve him in what he desir’d, or anything that their meane estate was capable of: and that if he pleas’d but to conceale himself in a Thicket hard by, the one of them would stay with him to give him notice of any approaching danger, and the other should soon supply him and his Friend with althings necessary for their disguise: and that afterwards if they pleas’d to go along with them to their habitation (which stood but a little distance thence) they would undertake to secure them for that day, and at night conduct them to a Gentlemans house not farre from that place; of whose affection to the royall Partie they were so confident, that the King himself need not feare to put his life into his hands. Philarchus hearing them speak so cordially, had his confidence in them redoubled, which gave him no small Joy. The one of them staying with him, the other went to fetch the Disguises. In the meane time Philarchus ask’d Placius (for so was the Forrester call’d that stay’d with him) amongst other questions, the name of that Gentleman whom they affirm’d to love his King so well.

He is call’d Leonishus[24] Sir (repli’d he.) At the name of Leonishus Philarchus no longer doubted he was the same who had been his intimate friend for many yeares; though when he abandon’d Sicilia with the Prince, he liv’d far distant from that part of the Kingdome: but knowing diverse things might happen to{191} enduce him to change his aboad, he question’d not but in Leonishus to find his ancient friend. Silvius, the other Brother was by this time return’d, bringing with him two sutes of Apparell with all other necessaries: the two Brothers helping Philarchus to put on one of them; after which taking such a direction from Silvius as he might be sure not to miss the way to his house, and with him agreed how to demeane themselves when they came thither; (not thinking fit to let them see the King till he had first enform’d him what he had done) he bid them farewell for a while, promising to be with them ere it were long; and hastens back to Claromenes, who began to be in some perplexity for his stay: but when he saw him approach the Tree he knew him not (so strange an alteration had that assumed habit made) till such time as he spake.

I would beg your pardon Sir said he for so long an absence from you, had it not conduced to your preservation by meanes of this disguise which I have procured you, which will I trust, secure you from all suspition of being what you are: and I bless Heaven who inspir’d me with a desire of following those men, whom I have found so honest, and ready to afford me any assistance I can require, that I doubt not now to see your Majesty safe both from the secret treacheries, or open violence of those who are so solicitous for your destruction: descend Sir then I beseech you (continu’d he) and for once follow my example in putting on a Pezants shape.

The King being exceedingly satisfi’d [fol. 77 v ] with what he had done, spake his resentments [feelings] in such obliging language, as let Philarchus see, he serv’d a Prince who of all others merited from his servants the highest evincements of their duty, by the kindness wherewith he receiv’d petty services. The King having in an instant chang’d his Clothes, Philarchus began to bethinke him what to do with those, his royall Master had disrob’d himself of: to leave them there, he deem’d unsafe, lest any chanceing to find them, might through inquisitiveness discover what could not be kept too private: and to carry them to Silvius’s house was no lesse inconvenient; so that having a while consulted with Claromenes what it were best to do with them, he told him, there was no better way then to hide them in that Tree which had been their Sanctuary, and in the evening send Placius thither to fetch them.

This being agreed on, and accordingly done, they hasted to Silvius his Lodge, which without much difficulty they found; whether being come, they were met at the Dore by Silvius himself, who the better to palliate the disguise, wellcom’d them with as kind a familiarity as if he had of a long time been acquainted with these his new and unknown Guests; telling his Wife, they were two Kinsmen of his whom for some yeares he had not seen; desiring her to provide for their entertainment, whatever their poor condition was capable of; whereby his Cousins (as he said) might see they were wellcome to him, which the Good Woman was not backward to do: geting ready with all expedition such Cates as country people account good Cheere. But now, all the Kings fear was that his hands would betray him, or discover that his Person, and Habit held no correspondence{192} with each other (for indeed they were so delicately white, as few Ladies in Sicilie could boast the like) which having told Philarchus he presently called to mind, that there was a certain Tree, the Leaves whereof being boil’d in Water, would so change the skin of any person that wash’d in it, that for many dayes they should not recover their former Complexion: whereupon he desired Silvius if possible to get him some of those Leaves; and by good Fortune he had one of those Trees grew on the backside of his house, whereby he quickly satisfied Philarchus’s request, fetching him instantly as many as he needed; which having made a Bath of, wherein Claromenes washing his hands, soon found the effect by the alteration it produced. Dinner being now ready, it is not to be question’d but the King, and Philarchus (having neither of them tasted any manner of sustenance for the space of almost two dayes and a night) fed heartily on that which was set before them; the King protested, he rellished more reall sweetness in that homely Fare, then ever he had done in all those Courtly Dainties which were his usuall repasts: and found by the mutuall love there was in that small Family, and the intire satisfaction they took in that little Heaven had bestow’d on them, that Content was more easily found obtained, and oftner found in Cottages, then on Thrones, and lodg’d more frequently under thatch’d Roofes, then Carved Scielings.

The Evening now approaching (as they [fol.78 r ] determin’d) they bid adue to Silvius with thankes and a reward great as the courtesie they had receiv’d, and with Placius for their Guide they took their way to Leonishus’s house, who by good fortune was at that time at home: but supposing it convenient to send Placius to make way for their privat reception, they stay’d in the meane time at a little distance to wait his returne. He being admitted to speake with Leonishus told him, there were hard by two Gentlemen (whose names he knew not) one whereof desir’d the favour of a quarter of an houres discourse with him in private.

I suppose Sir (added he) the one of them to be some person of quality by the clothes he had on when I first met him, which he has since exchang’d for some of mine.

Leonishus presently conjectur’d he was one of those Unfortunate Gentlemen who had possibly hazarded his life and fortune in his Prince his quarell, and by this late defeat reduced to seek his security under a disguise, might have recourse to his assistance; which if so, he resolv’d to afford him whatever lay in his power: to which end he instantly went along with Placius who shew’d him where they were: no sooner did Philarchus see him, but by that light which the Moon afforded he certainly knew him to be the same Leonishus who had been for many yeares his intimate, and most familiar Friend: but in that manner had his habit disguis’d him, as Leonishus had never in the least mistrusted it had been he, had he not by speaking discover’d himself; but sosoon as ever he heard him speak he immediatly knew him by his voice; and embraceing him with all the demonstrations of a reall amitie,

I know not Dear Philarchus (said he speaking something low) whether I ought to blame Fortune for reduceing you to the necessity of this disguise, or my{193} self, for my stupidity in not conceiving you were hidden under it. But I beseech you Sir (continued he) what is become of our poor Unfortunate Prince; for you I suppose (if any man) can resolve me, being (as I was enform’d) the onely person that accompani’d him in his flight after the Loss of the Battell; since which fatall day I have suffer’d such tormenting feares for him, lest he up unhappily fall into the merciless hands of his implacable enemies, that I would give my life to know he were in saftie.

You may have that assurance at a lower rate (repli’d Philarchus drawing him at a further distance, being unwilling Placius should heare him) since I can assure you he is yet safe, thankes to Heaven for his preservation: and tis to me a Joy beyond expression to find the opinion I had of your Loyalty has not deceiv’d me, but that I may with confidence put my Soveraignes Life into your hands, by bringing him to seek a greater security from your Care, and assistance. But not to loose time by unnecessary discourse; I will tell you Leonishus (pursu’d he) this very person whom you see with me, is no other then the Illustrious Claromenes.

At which assurance he would instantly have thrown himselfe at his feet, to tender him the humblest of his services and submissions that he could have expected from the meanest of his subiects; but being restrain’d by [fol. 78 v ] Philarchus’s puting him in mind that, that was neither time, nor place convenient for the payment of those respects which were due to the royall Dignity, he contented himself to lead them silently into his house, thorough a private dore, and up a paire of backstaires which lead into his Chamber; and causing a Candle to be brought him, by its dim light he soon perceiv’d Fame had rather injur’d Claromenes, then done him Justice in that report she gave of his brave Majestick Mine [mien], which that unbecoming, and most unfitting Garbe he then was in could not so much obscure, but he could gather from that short view assurances great enough that Philarchus had not deluded him ^in telling him^ it was the King; which induced him no longer to defer that reverence he thought due to his Soveraign: so that flinging himself at his Feet;

Pardon Great Sir (said he) this rude reception of your Royall Majesty; which nothing but the necessity of your concealment (of which I am very sensible) can in the least degree render excusable: and believe Sir I beseech you, that though my condition denies me ability to give you such a treatment as I ought, and yours permits me not to give you such a one as I might; yet your Majesty shall find by the zeal I have to serve you, that you have yet one faithfull subject left in Sicilie whose Fidelity remaines immovable, though his age rendred him unable to express his loyalty by a personall assistance in the late Fight; and that I am ambitious of no greater honour then the glory of hazarding my life for your saftie.

Rise Leonishus (repli’d the King giving him his hand to kiss) and forget I am your King; and thinke not in this estate whereto I am reduced, that I expect anything of Ceremony, or the least respect that my quality might challenge from you at another time; for such is my condition now, that I can admit of none. No, rather (pursu’d he with a sigh, to think how Fortune had Metamorphos’d him) regard{194} me as no other, then what I personate, and as such henceforth treat me. I have from Philarchus receiv’d such a Charactar of you, as makes me know the reverence you beare me is fix’d too deeply in your Soule, to need an externall expression to illustrate it.

After this, some time was spent in consultation how to mannage an affaire of such concerne, with so prudent a circumspection as might best facilitate the Kings geting safe out of Sicilie, as speedily as might possibly be contriv’d. But of all those ways propounded by Philarchus, none seem’d so probable to Leonishus as one which himself had thought on, though at present he said nothing of it, till he had spoken with his Daughter the Vertuous Ileana; but being extreamly impatient to know by what meanes the King had been preserv’d, he intreated Philarchus to satisfie his curiosity in that perticuler, which in few words he did: whereby he gave him occation both to commend, and highly value those two Brothers for that sincere honesty, and discretion they had manifested by what they had so well perform’d. A little after quiting the Roome, and calling for Ileana, she immediatly came to him, whom he commanded to follow him into his Closet, whether being come [fol. 79 r ] in this manner he spake to her.

As it has ever been my care Daughter (said he) to infuse into you such Principles of Vertue, and Generosity as might give you a title to a Fame as noble as divers of your sex have deservedly acquir’d; so now I offer thee an opportunity to let me see, my care in thy education has not been fruitlessly employ’d; and to encourage thee to what I now propound, I must tell thee thy duty is doubly concern’d therein; both to thy King, and to my selfe. Know then Ileana (continu’d he) that our King the great Claromenes has dain’d me the honour to make my house his sanctuary; and is at present here conceal’d with my noble Friend Philarchus of whom I am sure you have often heard me speak: but to secure them here for any time will be so difficult, and the danger so great on the Kings behalf that I tremble to think of it. That then that I require of you is, that you will take upon you to convey him (if possible) from all those emenent dangers wherewith his Royall person is threatned; which I trust you may safely do, by pretending a visit to your sister, and giving out in the house, that she being fallen sick has sent one to bring you to her; for that Garbe the King is in, may make his pass amongst ours, for one of your Brothers servants: and for Philarchus who I intend shall not be seen by any but your selfe, I will ere the day breakes, send before to Gonsalvos, who living as he does but a little distant from the Sea, may against such time as you arrive thither with the King, provide a Bark to transport him out of Sicilie.

Leonishus having in these words acquainted Ileana with his Design (she repli’d). If you had an intention to try my Obedience sir, it should have been by something wherein my inclinations were averse from yours; but in this which you have now propos’d, my Glory is somuch concern’d, that had my Duty no share in it, I should not scruple to attempt it. Judge then sir, when I have two such powerfull Motives to envite me to so glorious an Enterprise, with what willingness I shall undertake it: nor shall I once consider the hazard wherto I expose my selfe{195} thereby, since were I sure to loose my life, provided I might be but the happie Instrument of my Kings preservation, I should embrace my Destiny with a higher satisfaction then Iphigenia became the sacrifice of Greece, and count my Fate too glorious to be lamented.

Leonishus hearing his Daughter speak so generously, was not a little pleas’d to find her such as he had always endeavour’d to render her. But not to loose time, he left her; and went to give Claromenes an account by what way he had contrived his escape; which both to the King, and Philarchus appear’d so probable as they could not but highly approve of it. After some other discourse, the King desiring to see her who had determin’d so nobly to expose herselfe to the highest danger for his sake, her Father immediatly went and fetch’d her in. Though Ileana had never yet beheld the Face of a King but in a Picture, yet the very name struck her with so awefull a respect, and so profound a veneration, that she had not confidence to approach the presence of the Illustrious Claromenes without an inward trembling; but being before enform’d by Leonishus which was he, with a modest bashfullness she presented herselfe on her knees before him; but he soon rais’d her [fol. 79 v ] with a becoming grace, and charming Majesty peculier onely to himselfe.

I have already told your father (said he to her) that as my condition is at present stated I expect not the least Ceremony from him, much less will I accept any from you to whom I shall ever pay a perticuler respect for that generous Vertue you express, in proffering so freely to hazard your Life for my preservation; which Obligation how gratfully I resent [feel], Time which makes althings evident shall I trust sufficently demonstrate.

Terme not that an Obligation Dread Sir (repli’d she) which is so much my duty, as should I neglect it, especially now, that Opportunity puts it into my power to performe, however your Majesty might in Clemency pass it by, I should never pardon my selfe such an Omission.

Many other generous expressions having pass’d on both sides, I shall omit them, and onely tell you Madam (continu’d Arthenia) that althings being exactly perform’d as had been agreed on, and Philarchus dispatch’d away to Gonsalvo’s to give notice of the King’s coming thither; Ileana so well executed what she had undertaken, as she safely conducted her Illustrious Charge even thorough a whole Squadron of the Enemies Cavallrie, who lay so directly in their way as there was no possibility of avoiding them: but by Heavens perticuler care they pass’d as quietly as they could have wish’t, none in the least suspecting the Daughter of Leonishus to have a Royall Servant waiting on her, and at length arriv’d at Gonsalvo’s where they found Philarchus who had got thither the day before, travelling at a more speedy rate then they could possibly do. Whether being come, the Loyall Gonsalvo had in althings acted like himselfe, in taking care for their transportation to Naples, for thither Philarchus had enform’d him the King design’d to go. The Barke being in a readiness, and the Wind seting faire for their intended voiage; Claromenes thought it requisit instantly to go aboard, not to slip so favourable an opportunity; to which intent, having bid farewell to Gonsalvo with this{196} assurance, that as he was not ignorant of that Fidelity he had always testifi’d to his Royall Father, and now expresst a continuance of it to himselfe, so he would never be unmindfull of his past, nor present services to either. But scarce was Gonsalvo’s heart larg enough to containe those sentiments of griefe, and Joy which that Instant strove for precedency in his brest (of griefe to think to what cruell exigents his Prince had been expos’d by Fortune (or misfortune rather) and Joy, to see he was so neer a period of his dangers) so that those two contrary passions left him not the liberty to wish him a prosperous Voiage in such expressions as he desir’d; yet said he enough to let Claromenes see, he had not a more Cordially Faithfull subject in his Dominions then himself: whereupon, once more biding him adieu he embark’d with Philarchus, and Ileana whom he likewise took with him (having before promis’d Leonishus to take no less a care of her then if she were his sister) knowing Sicilia would be no safe aboad for her if it came once to be known that she had been [fol. 80 r ] instrumentall to his escape.

Having a favourable Gale of Wind to waft them from the Sicilian shore, they soon lost sight of it; and in as short a space as could be expected they arriv’d at their intended Haven, landing at the first Port Towne in Naples that they came too; where they made some little stay, onely till such time as they could put themselves again into a Garbe fit to appear in the Neapolitan Court in: which in a few dayes being by Philarchus’s care got ready, they directed their Journey to Court, where the Joy that was resented [felt] by Queen Herenia, the Princess his sister, and the Prince Issomantes his Brother, and divers others to whom he was deservedly deare, nothing could parallele but those tormenting griefes they suffer’d for his late misfortune; and heartwracking feares which had even in a manner overwhelm’d their spirits with dispaire of his life; which with too much reason they apprehended lost if once he fell into the merciless hands of his cruell enemies. To undertake to relate the reception that the Generous Ileana found from all those Illustrious persons whom either Nature, or Friendship had interested in King Claromenes’s preservation, with the Caresses, embraces; and acknowledgments she received from them all; or how highly she was honour’d by all in generall (being regarded as a person wholly destin’d by Heaven for so glorious a worke) were for me an impossible Task.

Here did the King continue for some yeares; till at length discovering some secret practices against his person by Mallinor[25] the chiefe Minister of state in that Kingdome, by holding a perticuler (though private) Correspondence with Ormisdas; of which, having proofes too manifest to doubt it, he resolv’d to quit Naples; not deeming it fit to accuse him being so great in power as none durst question ought he did: since by the authority of the Queen Regent (whose peculier Favourit he had alwayes been) he intierly ruled the whole affaires of State during the Kings minority, who was then but an Infant. This Claromenes prudently considering, left that Kingdome, together with the Prince Issomantes (knowing the little security{197} there was for either of them there since Mallinor was become their enemy) and went to seek a retreat in the Iberian Court;[26] where they were treated with all imaginable generosity and granduer for the time they made it their aboad: after which they pass’d into Celtiberia, the Prince whereof had married their eldest sister the Princess Marina;[27] who having not of a long time enjoy’d the felicity of seeing either of them, wellcom’d them with the highest demonstrations of an excessive Joy: with whom I will for sometime leave them, and returne to those things which more perticulerly relate to my selfe.

  1. James, Duke of York (Issomantes) was sent to London (Palermo) to be kept with Henry, Duke of Goucester (Hiperion) and Princess Elizabeth (Eluzeria) as prisoners in St. James Palace in London. 
  2. On 20 April 1648, James escaped from St. James Palace disguised as a girl. Princess Henrietta of England was conveyed to France, leaving Princess Elizabeth still in captivity where she was to die at Carisbrooke in 1650, a year after her father’s execution. 
  3. The sum 30000 talents would have amounted to approximately 300,000 pounds; most sources suggest that only 100,000 pounds of a sum amounting to 400,000 pounds was paid. 
  4. Charles was taken first to Holmby House in Northamptonshire. 
  5. Hampton Court was the palace ten miles from London where Charles was kept prisoner, but he succeeded in escaping and fled to the Isle of Wight (Lipara). 
  6. Mary Ellen Lamb has suggested that Gerandus is George Goring, 1st Earl of Norwich, because of the allusions to the campaign in Kent and siege of Colchester. 
  7. Manningham seems to be summarizing the war in England, Wales, and Scotland. John Poyer, Rowland Laugharne, and Rice Powell, Welsh commanders, initially supported the moderate Parliamentarian position and then became Royalists. 
  8. James Hamilton (1606–49), 1st Duke of Hamilton (Merobates) was an influential Scottish nobleman. 
  9. Commanders Poyer, Laugharne, and Powell were defeated at the Battle of St. Fagans by Cromwell (Ormisdas), and they were sentenced to death but then reprieved with only one being expected to face a firing squad. They drew lots, and only John Poyer was executed. 
  10. Cromwell defeated the Scottish army at Preston Moor in 1648. In October, Cromwell entered Scotland and came to terms with Archibald Campbell, 8th Duke of Argyll. 
  11. The word garbe is underlined for deletion, and it is to be replaced with the word ^grace^. 
  12. The Royalists surrendered at the siege of Colchester from a shortage of food. 
  13. Arthur Capell, 1st Baron Capell, (Cratander) asked to have his heart buried with the king. He was executed with Hamilton (Merobates). 
  14. Labeled Pride’s Purge, members of Parliament who voted to continue negotiations with the king were forcibly prevented by members of the army from entering the Parliament. 
  15. John Bradshaw (Brataldo) was appointed Lord President of the tribunal that tried Charles I. 
  16. The MS reads “vild” with “d” underlined and “e” inserted above. 
  17. Charles I was interred at Windsor near Henry VIII. 
  18. Fairfax refused to take any oath to the Commonwealth which would have meant giving approval to the trial and execution of Charles 1. 
  19. Charles II (Claromenes) was invited to Scotland where he was crowned king at Scone on 1 January 1651. 
  20. Bridget Manningham errs in suggesting that Cromwell was trying to prevent Charles II from entering England. Cromwell was in Scotland; he had defeated the Scots at Dunbar and was marching toward Perth when Charles left Scotland in the hope of severing Cromwell’s communication with the south. 
  21. James Stanley, 7th Earl of Derby (Stertorius) was raising troops in Lancashire and Cheshire. Charles’s army may have been just over 13,000 men while Cromwell’s was over 28,000. 
  22. The Battle of Worcester was a victory for Cromwell. Approximately 4,000 Scots were taken prisoner. According to Clarendon, whom Bridget Manningham may have consulted, they were sold to plantations as slaves, but accounts differ. See Edward Hyde (1609–74), 1st Earl of Clarendon, The History of the Rebellion and Civil Wars in England. 3 vols. (1707; Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1819), 3: 553. 
  23. Charles II enjoyed telling the story of his escape by hiding in what came to be known as the Royal Oak. In 1651, after his defeat by Cromwell at the Battle of Worcester, he was accompanied by James Stanley, 7th Earl of Derby; Lieutenant-General Henry Wilmot, later 1st Earl of Rochester, and Charles Giffard who owned Bascobel House where the Royal Oak was located. Giffard, along with William Careless, may have introduced him to the Penderel family. Richard and George Penderel and their family were instrumental in Charles’s escape and received pensions at the Restoration. 
  24. One possibility is the royalist Colonel Thomas Lane whose sister Jane (Ileana) later accompanied Charles to the coast; Charles II was disguised as her servant. Mary Ellen Lamb has suggested that Thomas Whitgreave of Moseley Hall, Staffordshire may be Leonishus and that a daughter of his along with Jane Lane may be Ileana. Both Jane Lane and Thomas Whitgreave received pensions at the Restoration. 
  25. The chief minister of France was Cardinal Mazarin. 
  26. The Iberian Court is Spain. 
  27. Princes Mary Henrietta, daughter of Charles I, married William II of Orange of Holland (Netherlands).


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Rivall Friendship by Bridget Manningham Copyright © 2021 by Arizona Board of Regents for Arizona State University is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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